What was the Pomeranian War (1805-1810)?

Introduction The Pomeranian War, or Franco-Swedish War, was the first involvement by Sweden in the Napoleonic Wars. The country joined the Third Coalition in an effort to defeat France under Napoleon Bonaparte. Background In 1803 Britain had declared war on France, at this time Sweden had remained neutral together with the Nordic countries Denmark-Norway and… Read More

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What was the Anglo-Russian War (1807-1812)?

Introduction During the Napoleonic Wars, the Anglo-Russian War (02 September 1807 to 18 July 1812) was the phase of hostilities between Great Britain and Russia after the latter signed the Treaty of Tilsit that ended its war with France. Anglo-Russian hostilities were limited primarily to minor naval actions in the Baltic Sea and Barents Sea.… Read More

What was the Finnish War (1808-1809)?

Introduction The Finnish War (Swedish: Finska kriget, Russian: Финляндская война, Finnish: Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from 21 February 1808 to 17 September 1809. As a result of the war, the eastern third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian… Read More

What was the Anglo-Swedish War (1810-1812)?

Introduction During the Napoleonic Wars until 1810, Sweden and Great Britain were allies in the war against Napoleon. As a result of Sweden’s defeat in the Finnish War and the Pomeranian War, and the following Treaty of Fredrikshamn and Treaty of Paris, Sweden declared war on Great Britain. The bloodless war, however, existed only on… Read More

What was the Battle of Krasnoi (1812)?

Introduction The Battle of Krasnoi (Krasny) (15 to 18 November 1812) was a series of skirmishes fought in the final stage of Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow. The Russians under General Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov inflicted heavy losses on the remnants of the Grande Armée. Lacking sufficient artillery, cavalry and supplies to wage battle, Napoleon’s objective at… Read More

What was the Battle of Berezina (1812)?

Introduction The Battle of (the) Berezina (or Beresina) took place from 26 to 29 November 1812, between the French army of Napoleon, retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina (near Borisov, Belarus), and the Russian armies under Mikhail Kutuzov, Peter Wittgenstein and Admiral Pavel Chichagov. The battle ended with a mixed outcome.… Read More

What was the Battle of Klyastitsy (1812)?

Introduction The Battle of Klyastitsy, also called Battle of Yakubovo, was a series of military engagements that took place in 1812 near the village of Klyastitsy (Russian: Кля́стицы) (Drissa uyezd, Vitebsk guberniya) on the road between Polotsk and Sebezh. In this battle the Russian corps under the command of Peter Wittgenstein stood up to the… Read More