An Overview of the Allies of World War II

Introduction The Allies, formally referred to as the United Nations from 1942, were an international military coalition formed during the Second World War (1939-1945) to oppose the Axis powers, led by Nazi Germany, the Empire of Japan, and the Kingdom of Italy. Its principal members by the end of 1941 were the United Kingdom, United… Read More


What is a Treaty of Friendship?

Introduction A treaty of friendship, also known as a friendship treaty, is a common generic name for any treaty establishing close ties between countries. Friendship treaties have been used for agreements about use and development of resources, territorial integrity, access to harbours, trading lanes and fisheries, and promises of cooperation. Whilst not common, there are… Read More

An Overview of the Treaty of Defensive Alliance (Bolivia-Peru) (1873)

Introduction The Treaty of Defensive Alliance was a secret defence pact between Bolivia and Peru. Signed in the Peruvian capital, Lima, on 06 February 1873, the document was composed of eleven central articles that outlined its necessity and stipulations and one additional article that ordered the treaty to be kept secret until both contracting parties… Read More

What is an Entente

Introduction An entente is a type of treaty or military alliance in which the signatories promise to consult each other or to cooperate in the event of a crisis or military action. Examples include the Entente Cordiale between France and the United Kingdom, or the Triple Entente between France, Russia and Britain. It has been… Read More

What is a Non-Aggression Pact?

Introduction A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a treaty between two or more states/countries that includes a promise by the signatories not to engage in military action against each other. Such treaties may be described by other names, such as a treaty of friendship or non-belligerency, etc. Leeds, Ritter, Mitchell, & Long (2002) distinguish… Read More

What is a Military Alliance?

Introduction A military alliance is a formal agreement between nations concerning national security. Nations in a military alliance agree to active participation and contribution to the defence of others in the alliance in the event of a crisis. In the event a nation is attacked, members of the alliance are often obligated to come to… Read More

What is a Defence Pact?

Introduction A defence pact is a type of treaty or military alliance which the signatories promise to support each other militarily and to defend each other. Generally, the signatories point out the threats and concretely prepare to respond to it together. Refer to Non-Aggression Pact and Entente.