What was the Schuman Declaration (1950)?

Introduction The Schuman Declaration was a speech made by the French Minister of Europe and Foreign Affairs, Robert Schuman, on 09 May 1950. It proposed placing French and West German production of coal and steel under a single authority that would later be opened to other European countries. The ultimate goal was to pacify relations,… Read More


What is the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)?

Introduction The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security alliance, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002… Read More

What is the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO)?

Introduction The Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO; Russian: Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o Kollektivnoy Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance in Eurasia that consists of selected post-Soviet states. The treaty had its origins to the Soviet Armed Forces, which was gradually replaced by the United Armed Forces of the Commonwealth of… Read More

What is the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)?

Introduction The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO, French: Organisation du traité de l’Atlantique nord, OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The organisation implements the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 04 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby… Read More

What was the Warsaw Pact?

Introduction The Warsaw Treaty Organisation, officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland between the Soviet Union and seven other Eastern Bloc socialist republics of Central and Eastern Europe in May 1955, during the Cold War. The Warsaw… Read More

UK Armed Forces Overseas Units/Commands

Introduction The UK Armed Forces maintains a number of units/commands around the globe, including: British Forces Gibraltar The four (4) principle Units and Commands operating out of British Forces Gibraltar are: RAF Gibraltar: https://www.raf.mod.uk/our-organisation/stations/raf-gibraltar/. HM Naval Base (including the Royal Navy Gibraltar Squadron): https://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/news-and-latestactivity/operations/mediterranean-and-black-sea/gibraltarsquadron) and https://www.gov.uk/government/groups/qhmgibraltar. Gibraltar Defence Police (akin to the Ministry of Defence… Read More

What was Operation RYaN (1981)

Introduction Operation RYAN (or RYaN, Russian: РЯН, IPA: [rʲæn]) was a Cold War military intelligence programme run by the Soviet Union during the early 1980s when they believed the United States was planning for an imminent first strike attack. The name is an acronym for Raketno-Yadernoe Napadenie (Russian: Ракетно-ядерное нападение, “Nuclear Missile Attack”). The purpose… Read More