What is a Free War?

Introduction Free war (Swedish: Fria kriget) is a form of guerrilla warfare that is conducted with cut-off smaller military units in enemy occupied territory. The largest difference between free war and guerrilla warfare is that free war is conducted by regular military forces, instead of paramilitary organisations or irregular military forces. The term is most… Read More


An Overview of the Nicaraguan Revolution (1961-1990)

Introduction The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to oust the dictatorship in 1978-1979, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, and the… Read More

What was the Salvadoran Civil War (1979-1992)?

Introduction The Salvadoran Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil de El Salvador) was a twelve year period of civil war in El Salvador that was fought between the government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), a coalition or “umbrella organisation” of left-wing groups. A coup on 15 October 1979 followed by… Read More

What is a Peace Dividend?

Introduction Peace dividend was a political slogan popularised by US President George H.W. Bush and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in the light of the 1988-1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, that described the economic benefit of a decrease in defence spending. The term was frequently used at the end of the Cold War, when… Read More

What was the Mutual Defence Assistance Act (1949)?

Introduction The Mutual Defence Assistance Act (MDAA) was a United States Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 06 October 1949. For US Foreign policy, it was the first US military foreign aid legislation of the Cold War era, and initially to Europe. The Act followed Truman’s signing of the Economic Cooperation… Read More

What was the Marshall Plan (US)?

Introduction The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Programme, ERP) was an American initiative enacted in 1948 to provide foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $13 billion (equivalent of about $115 billion in 2021) in economic recovery programmes to Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing an… Read More

What was the Point Four Plan (US)?

Introduction The Point Four Program was a technical assistance programme for “developing countries” announced by United States President Harry S. Truman in his inaugural address on 20 January 1949. It took its name from the fact that it was the fourth foreign policy objective mentioned in the speech. Refer to Marshall Plan. Background By 1947… Read More