What was the Mutual Defence Assistance Act (1949)?

Introduction The Mutual Defence Assistance Act (MDAA) was a United States Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 06 October 1949. For US Foreign policy, it was the first US military foreign aid legislation of the Cold War era, and initially to Europe. The Act followed Truman’s signing of the Economic Cooperation… Read More


What was the Marshall Plan (US)?

Introduction The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Programme, ERP) was an American initiative enacted in 1948 to provide foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $13 billion (equivalent of about $115 billion in 2021) in economic recovery programmes to Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing an… Read More

What is the US Foreign Operations Administration?

Introduction The Foreign Operations Administration was created in 1953 under the directorship of Harold Stassen. Its purpose “was intended to centralize all governmental operations, as distinguished from policy formulation, that had as their purpose the cooperative development of economic and military strength among the nations of the free world”. It was abolished by Executive Order… Read More

What is the Mutual Security Act of 1951 (US)?

Introduction The Mutual Security Act of 1951 launched a major American foreign aid programme, 1951-1961, of grants to numerous countries. It largely replaced the Marshall Plan. The main goal was to help poor countries develop and to contain the spread of communism. It was signed on 10 October 1951, by President Harry S. Truman. Annual… Read More

What was the Mutual Security Agency (US)?

Introduction The Mutual Security Agency (1951-1953) was a US agency to strengthen European allies of World War II through military assistance and economic recovery. Brief History The Mutual Security Agency was established by the passing of the Mutual Security Act by the United States Congress on 10 October 1951. The purpose of the agency was,… Read More