What were the Allied Plans for German Industry after World War II?

Introduction The industrial plans for Germany were designs the Allies of World War II considered imposing on Germany in the Aftermath of World War II to reduce and manage Germany’s industrial capacity. Background At the Potsdam conference (July-August 1945), with the US seeking to implement the Morgenthau plan, drawn up by Henry Morgenthau Jr, the… Read More


What is Pax Americana?

Introduction Pax Americana (Latin for “American Peace”, modelled after Pax Romana and Pax Britannica; also called the Long Peace) is a term applied to the concept of relative peace in the Western Hemisphere and later in the world after the end of World War II in 1945, when the United States (US) became the world’s… Read More

An Overview of the Monnet Plan

Introduction Faced with the challenge of reconstruction after World War II, France implemented the Modernisation and Re-equipment Plan, which was designed to spur economic recovery.  This plan is commonly known as the “Monnet Plan” after Jean Monnet, the chief advocate and first head of the General Planning Commission (Le Commissariat général du Plan). The Monnet… Read More

What was GARIOA?

Introduction Government Aid and Relief in Occupied Areas (GARIOA) was a programme under which the United States after the 1945 end of World War II from 1946 onwards provided emergency aid to the occupied nations of Japan, Germany, and Austria. The aid was predominantly in the form of food to alleviate starvation in the occupied… Read More

What was the Morgenthau Plan?

Introduction The Morgenthau Plan was a proposal to eliminate Germany’s ability to wage war following World War II by eliminating its arms industry and removing or destroying other key industries basic to military strength. This included the removal or destruction of all industrial plants and equipment in the Ruhr. It was first proposed by United… Read More

What was the Mutual Defence Assistance Act (1949)?

Introduction The Mutual Defence Assistance Act (MDAA) was a United States Act of Congress signed by President Harry S. Truman on 06 October 1949. For US Foreign policy, it was the first US military foreign aid legislation of the Cold War era, and initially to Europe. The Act followed Truman’s signing of the Economic Cooperation… Read More

What was the Marshall Plan (US)?

Introduction The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Programme, ERP) was an American initiative enacted in 1948 to provide foreign aid to Western Europe. The United States transferred over $13 billion (equivalent of about $115 billion in 2021) in economic recovery programmes to Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing an… Read More