What was GARIOA?

Introduction Government Aid and Relief in Occupied Areas (GARIOA) was a programme under which the United States after the 1945 end of World War II from 1946 onwards provided emergency aid to the occupied nations of Japan, Germany, and Austria. The aid was predominantly in the form of food to alleviate starvation in the occupied… Read More


What was Wirtschaftswunder?

Introduction The Wirtschaftswunder (“economic miracle”), also known as the Miracle on the Rhine, was the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an ordoliberalism-based social market economy). The expression referring to this phenomenon was first used by The Times in 1950. Beginning with the replacement… Read More