What is a Caudillo?

Introduction A caudillo (old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput “head”) is a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power. There is no precise definition of caudillo, which is often used interchangeably with “warlord” and “strongman”. The term is historically associated with Spain, and with Hispanic America after virtually all of… Read More


What is Hard Power?

Introduction Hard power is the use of military and economic means to influence the behaviour or interests of other political bodies. This form of political power is often aggressive (coercion), and is most immediately effective when imposed by one political body upon another of lesser military and/or economic power. Refer to Power Projection. Hard power… Read More

What is Soft Power?

Introduction In politics (and particularly in international politics), soft power is the ability to attract and co-opt, rather than coerce (contrast hard power). In other words, soft power involves shaping the preferences of others through appeal and attraction. A defining feature of soft power is that it is non-coercive; the currency of soft power includes… Read More

What is the Operational Level of War?

Introduction In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called operational art, as derived from Russian: оперативное искусство, or operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy. In Joint US military doctrine, operational art is “the cognitive approach by commanders and… Read More

What is Loss of Strength Gradient?

Introduction The Loss of Strength Gradient (LSG) is a military concept devised by Kenneth E. Boulding in his 1962 book Conflict and Defense: A General Theory. He argued that the amount of a nation’s military power that could be brought to bear in any part of the world depended on geographic distance. The Loss of… Read More

Mistaken Application!

“Any military commander who is honest will admit that he makes mistakes in the application of military power.” Robert McNamara (1916 to 2009) Robert Strange McNamara was the US Secretary of Defence from 1961 to 1968 who revamped Pentagon operations and who played a major role in the nation’s military involvement in the Vietnam War.

European Union Countries by Military Power 2018

According to the index created by Global Firepower (GFP), the military power of European Union countries in 2018 is: France. United Kingdom (UK). Germany. Italy. Spain. Poland. Greece. Czech Republic. Sweden. Netherlands. Romania. Denmark. Hungary. Finland. Bulgaria. Austria. Slovakia. Portugal. Belgium. Croatia. Slovenia. Lithuania. Latvia. Estonia. Ireland. Reference GFP (Global Firepower) (2018) European Union Powers Ranked… Read More