What is the Operational Level of War?

Introduction In the field of military theory, the operational level of war (also called operational art, as derived from Russian: оперативное искусство, or operational warfare) represents the level of command that connects the details of tactics with the goals of strategy. In Joint US military doctrine, operational art is “the cognitive approach by commanders and… Read More

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What is Military Tactics?

Introduction Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield. They involve the application of four battlefield functions which are closely related – kinetic or firepower, mobility, protection or security, and shock action. Tactics are a separate function from command and control and logistics. In contemporary military science,… Read More

The Strands of War…

“The Strands of War are four in number, … I. The quality and capability of the commander. II. The quality and capability of the troops. III. Morale. IV. Resources.” Lieutenant Colonel A.H. Burne, DSO, RA (Retired), The Art of War on Land (1944) Alfred Higgins Burne D.S.O., C.I.E., O.B.E., F.S.A. (1886-1959) was a British Army… Read More

Dark Thunderbolt…

“Let your plans be as dark and impenetrable as night, and when you move, fall like a thunderbolt.” Sun Tzu (400 BCE to 301 BCE) Sunzi, Wade-Giles romanisation Sun-tzu, also spelled Sun Tzu, personal name Sun Wu, (flourished 5th century BC), reputed author of the Chinese classic Bingfa (The Art of War), the earliest known… Read More

Opportunities…

“Opportunities multiply as they are seized.” Sun Tzu (400 BCE to 301 BCE) Sunzi, Wade-Giles romanisation Sun-tzu, also spelled Sun Tzu, personal name Sun Wu, (flourished 5th century BC), reputed author of the Chinese classic Bingfa (The Art of War), the earliest known treatise on war and military science. Sunzi, a military strategist and general… Read More

Harmony…

“Without harmony in the state, no military expedition can be undertaken; without harmony in the army, no battle array can be formed.” Wu Zi (440 to 381 BC) Sun Tzu’s Art of War is one of the most famous Chinese texts. What is often not realised is that there are a number of other equally… Read More

Advancing: Civilisation & Killing…

“You can’t say that civilization don’t advance, however, for every war they kill you in a new way.” Will Rogers (1879 to 1935) William Penn Adair Rogers was an American stage and motion picture actor, vaudeville performer, American cowboy, humourist, newspaper columnist, and social commentator from Oklahoma. He was a Cherokee citizen born in the… Read More