What was War Plan Orange?

Introduction War Plan Orange (commonly known as Plan Orange or just Orange) is a series of United States Joint Army and Navy Board war plans for dealing with a possible war with Japan during the years between the First and Second World Wars (refer to US Colour-Coded War Plans). It failed to foresee the significance… Read More


What was War Plan Gray?

Introduction War Plan Gray was a plan for the United States to invade the Azores Islands in 1940-1941 given the possibility of Germany seizing the islands. Gray is one of the many colour-coded war plans created in the early 20th century. On 22 May 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt directed the US Army and Navy… Read More

What was the Plan Dog Memo (1940)?

Introduction The Plan Dog memorandum was a 1940 American government document written by Chief of Naval Operations Harold Stark. It has been called “one of the best known documents of World War II.” Confronting the problem of an expected two-front war against Germany and Italy in Europe and Japan in the Pacific, the memo set… Read More

What where the US Colour-Coded War Plans?

Introduction During the 1920s and 1930s, the United States military Joint Army and Navy Board developed a number of color-coded war plans that outlined potential US strategies for a variety of hypothetical war scenarios. The plans, developed by the Joint Planning Committee (which later became the Joint Chiefs of Staff), were officially withdrawn in 1939… Read More

What were the Imperial German Plans for the Invasion of the US?

Introduction Imperial German plans for the invasion of the United States were ordered by staff officers from 1897 to 1903 as training exercises in planning for war. The hypothetical operations was supposed to force the US to bargain from a weak position and to sever its growing economic and political connections in the Pacific Ocean,… Read More

Unfathomable Moves…

“Carefully study the well-being of your men, and do not overtax them. Concentrate your energy and hoard your strength. Keep your army continually on the move and devise unfathomable plans.” Sun Tzu Sunzi, Wade-Giles romanisation Sun-tzu, also spelled Sun Tzu, personal name Sun Wu, (flourished 5th century BC), reputed author of the Chinese classic Bingfa… Read More

Demand Achievement…

“One must demand the impossible to ensure that the impossible will be achieved.” Field Marshal Helmut von Moltke (1800 to 1891) Helmuth von Moltke, in full Helmuth Karl Bernhard, Count (graf) von Moltke, was Chief of the Prussian and German General Staff (1858–88) and the architect of the victories over Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), and… Read More