What was War Plan Black?

Introduction One of the United States colour-coded war plans, War Plan Black was the name of an American military plan to fight Germany in the early 20th century. Background The best-known version was conceived as a contingency plan during World War I in case France fell and the Germans attempted to seize French possessions in… Read More

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What were the Imperial German Plans for the Invasion of the US?

Introduction Imperial German plans for the invasion of the United States were ordered by staff officers from 1897 to 1903 as training exercises in planning for war. The hypothetical operations was supposed to force the US to bargain from a weak position and to sever its growing economic and political connections in the Pacific Ocean,… Read More

What was the Invasion of Jersey (1779)?

Introduction The Invasion of Jersey was a failed French attack on British-held Jersey in 1779, during the American Revolutionary War. Refer to Battle of Jersey (1781). Battle A letter from Major Moses Corbet, Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, reported that on 01 May 1779, a French force attempted a landing at St Ouen’s Bay. Early that… Read More

What is an Invasion?

Introduction An invasion is a military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory owned by another such entity, generally with the objective of: Conquering; Liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; Forcing the partition of a country; Altering the established government or gaining concessions from said… Read More

What was Operation Sealion (1940)?

Introduction Operation Sea Lion, also written as Operation Sealion (German: Unternehmen Seelöwe), was Nazi Germany’s code name for the plan for an invasion of the United Kingdom during the Battle of Britain in the Second World War. Following the Fall of France, Adolf Hitler, the German Führer and Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, hoped… Read More

What was the Mukden Incident?

Introduction The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was an event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Background On 18 September 1931, Lieutenant Suemori Kawamoto of the Independent Garrison Unit of the 29th Japanese Infantry Regiment (独立守備隊) detonated a small quantity of dynamite close to a railway… Read More