What is a Scorched Earth Policy?

Introduction A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy. Any assets that could be used by the enemy may be targeted, which usually includes obvious weapons, transport vehicles, communication sites, and industrial resources. However, anything useful to the advancing enemy may be targeted, including… Read More


What is Preventative Diplomacy?

Introduction Preventative diplomacy is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur. Outline Since the end of the Cold War the international community through international institutions has been focusing on preventive diplomacy. As the United Nations… Read More

What are Confidence-Building Measures?

Introduction Confidence-building measures (CBMs) or confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs) are actions taken to reduce fear of attack by both (or more) parties in a situation of conflict. The term is most often used in the context of armed conflict, but is similar in logic to that of trust and interpersonal communication used to reduce… Read More

What was the Nixon Doctrine (1969)?

Introduction The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on 25 July, 1969 by President of the United States Richard Nixon and later formalised in his speech on Vietnamisation of the Vietnam War on 03 November 1969. According to Gregg Brazinsky, author of “Nation Building… Read More

What is the Chinese Salami Slicing Strategy?

Introduction China’s salami slicing (Chinese: 蚕食; pinyin: Cán shí; transl. ”nibbling like a silkworm”) refers to a strategy by which the government of China is said to use small provocations, none of which would constitute a casus belli by itself, but cumulatively produce a much larger action or result in China’s favour which would have been… Read More

What are Salami Attacks?

Introduction Salami slicing tactics, also known as salami slicing, salami tactics, the salami-slice strategy, or salami attacks, is a divide and conquer process of threats and alliances used to overcome opposition. With it, an aggressor can influence and eventually dominate a landscape, typically political, in piecemeal fashion. Opposition is eliminated “slice by slice” until its… Read More

What was the 1957 Defence White Paper?

Introduction The 1957 White Paper on Defence (Cmnd. 124) was a British white paper issued in March 1957 setting forth the perceived future of the British military. It had profound effects on all aspects of the defence industry but probably the most affected was the British aircraft industry. Duncan Sandys, the recently appointed Minister of… Read More