What was the Nixon Doctrine (1969)?

Introduction The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on 25 July, 1969 by President of the United States Richard Nixon and later formalised in his speech on Vietnamisation of the Vietnam War on 03 November 1969. According to Gregg Brazinsky, author of “Nation Building… Read More


What is the Chinese Salami Slicing Strategy?

Introduction China’s salami slicing (Chinese: 蚕食; pinyin: Cán shí; transl. ”nibbling like a silkworm”) refers to a strategy by which the government of China is said to use small provocations, none of which would constitute a casus belli by itself, but cumulatively produce a much larger action or result in China’s favour which would have been… Read More

What are Salami Attacks?

Introduction Salami slicing tactics, also known as salami slicing, salami tactics, the salami-slice strategy, or salami attacks, is a divide and conquer process of threats and alliances used to overcome opposition. With it, an aggressor can influence and eventually dominate a landscape, typically political, in piecemeal fashion. Opposition is eliminated “slice by slice” until its… Read More

What was the 1957 Defence White Paper?

Introduction The 1957 White Paper on Defence (Cmnd. 124) was a British white paper issued in March 1957 setting forth the perceived future of the British military. It had profound effects on all aspects of the defence industry but probably the most affected was the British aircraft industry. Duncan Sandys, the recently appointed Minister of… Read More

An Overview of Civilian Control of the Military

Introduction Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country’s strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. Civilian control is often seen as a prerequisite feature of a stable liberal democracy. Use of the term in… Read More

What is the Anti-Secession Law (2005)?

Introduction The Anti-Secession Law (Chinese: 《反分裂国家法》) is a law of the People’s Republic of China, passed by the 3rd Session of the 10th National People’s Congress. It was ratified on 14 March 2005, and went into effect immediately. President Hu Jintao promulgated the law with Presidential Decree No. 34. Although the law, at ten articles,… Read More

What is Targeted Killing?

Introduction Targeted killing is defined as a form of killing carried out by governments. Some analysts believe that it is a modern euphemism for the assassination (prominent premeditated killing) of an individual by a state organisation or institution outside a judicial procedure or a battlefield. Since the late 20th century, the legal status of targeted… Read More