What was War Plan White?

Introduction War Plan White (also known as Emergency Plan White) was a United States colour-coded war plan originally created in 1919 to deal with a domestic uprising in the US. Originally drafted by the War Plans Division of the War Department General Staff (WDGS) it later evolved to Operation Garden Plot, the general US military… Read More


What was War Plan Orange?

Introduction War Plan Orange (commonly known as Plan Orange or just Orange) is a series of United States Joint Army and Navy Board war plans for dealing with a possible war with Japan during the years between the First and Second World Wars (refer to US Colour-Coded War Plans). It failed to foresee the significance… Read More

What was War Plan Red?

Introduction War Plan Red, also known as the Atlantic Strategic War Plan, was one of the colour-coded war plans created by the United States Department of War during the interwar period of 1919-1939, covering scenarios related to a hypothetical war with the British Empire (the “Red” forces, likely in reference to the Red Ensign). Many… Read More

What was War Plan Gray?

Introduction War Plan Gray was a plan for the United States to invade the Azores Islands in 1940-1941 given the possibility of Germany seizing the islands. Gray is one of the many colour-coded war plans created in the early 20th century. On 22 May 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt directed the US Army and Navy… Read More

What was the Plan Dog Memo (1940)?

Introduction The Plan Dog memorandum was a 1940 American government document written by Chief of Naval Operations Harold Stark. It has been called “one of the best known documents of World War II.” Confronting the problem of an expected two-front war against Germany and Italy in Europe and Japan in the Pacific, the memo set… Read More

What where the US Colour-Coded War Plans?

Introduction During the 1920s and 1930s, the United States military Joint Army and Navy Board developed a number of color-coded war plans that outlined potential US strategies for a variety of hypothetical war scenarios. The plans, developed by the Joint Planning Committee (which later became the Joint Chiefs of Staff), were officially withdrawn in 1939… Read More