What is Hard Power?

Introduction Hard power is the use of military and economic means to influence the behaviour or interests of other political bodies. This form of political power is often aggressive (coercion), and is most immediately effective when imposed by one political body upon another of lesser military and/or economic power. Refer to Power Projection. Hard power… Read More


What is Soft Power?

Introduction In politics (and particularly in international politics), soft power is the ability to attract and co-opt, rather than coerce (contrast hard power). In other words, soft power involves shaping the preferences of others through appeal and attraction. A defining feature of soft power is that it is non-coercive; the currency of soft power includes… Read More

What is Power Projection?

Introduction Power projection (or force projection or projection of power) is a term used in military and political science to refer to the capacity of a state to deploy and sustain forces outside its territory. Refer to Soft Power and Hard Power. This ability is a crucial element of a state’s power in international relations.… Read More

What is an Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier?

Introduction An unsinkable aircraft carrier is a term sometimes used to refer to a geographical or political island that is used to extend the power projection of a military force. Because such an entity is capable of acting as an airbase and is a physical landmass not easily destroyed, it is, in effect, an immobile… Read More

The Significant Costs of Aircraft Carriers

What is an Aircraft Carrier? An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft. Countries with Aircraft Carriers Notwithstanding the US, other countries capable of launching jet aircraft make do with smaller and less potent vessels. Countries… Read More

The Origins of the Market Economy: State Power, Territorial Control & Modes of War Fighting.

Title The Origins of the Market Economy: State Power, Territorial Control, and Modes of War Fighting. Outline The origin and spread of money-based commodity markets is normally attributed to a natural evolution from barter and is usually seen as a solution to problems of exchange. I [the author] want to propose that markets to a considerable degree develop historically out… Read More