What is Phaleristics?

Introduction Phaleristics, from the Greek mythological hero Phalerus (Greek: Φάληρος, Phaleros) via the Latin phalera (‘heroics’), sometimes spelled faleristics, is an auxiliary science of history and numismatics which studies orders, fraternities, and award items, such as medals, ribbons, and other decorations. Definition The subject includes orders of chivalry (including military orders), orders of merit, and… Read More

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What is the Les Invalides?

Introduction Les Invalides, formally the Hôtel national des Invalides, also Hôtel des Invalides (literally, “House of the disabled”) is a complex of buildings in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, France, containing museums and monuments, all relating to the military history of France, as well as a hospital and a retirement home for war veterans, the… Read More

Who was Lev Shankovsky?

Introduction Lev Shankovsky (Ukrainian: Шанко́вський Лев Петро́вич, Шанкі́вський), (pseudonym – “Dzvin”, “Oleh Martovych”) was a Ukrainian military historian and former Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) soldier, a leading member of the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists. He was a full member of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Shankovsky was born in 1903 in the village of Duliby, Stryi… Read More

On This Day … 22 November

Events 845 – The first duke of Brittany, Nominoe, defeats the Frankish king Charles the Bald at the Battle of Ballon near Redon. 1574 – Spanish navigator Juan Fernández discovers islands now known as the Juan Fernández Islands off Chile. 1635 – Dutch colonial forces on Taiwan launch a pacification campaign against native villages, resulting… Read More

On This Day … 21 November

Events 1386 – Timur of Samarkand captures and sacks the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, taking King Bagrat V of Georgia captive. 1620 – Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact (11 November, O.S.) 1676 – The Danish astronomer Ole Rømer presents the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light. 1783 – In Paris, Jean-François… Read More

What is the Lord High Admiral?

Introduction The Lord High Admiral (of England, Great Britain and then the United Kingdom, beginning in the 14th century) is the titular head of the Royal Navy. Most have been courtiers or members of the Royal Family, and not professional naval officers. The office of Lord High Admiral is one of the nine English Great… Read More

What is the Lord High Admiral of Scotland?

The Lord High Admiral of Scotland was one of the Great Officers of State of the Kingdom of Scotland before the Union with England in 1707. The office was one of considerable power, also known as Royal Scottish Admiralty, including command of the King’s ships and sailors and inspection of all sea ports, harbours, and… Read More