On This Day … 22 November


  • 845 – The first duke of Brittany, Nominoe, defeats the Frankish king Charles the Bald at the Battle of Ballon near Redon.
  • 1574 – Spanish navigator Juan Fernández discovers islands now known as the Juan Fernández Islands off Chile.
  • 1635 – Dutch colonial forces on Taiwan launch a pacification campaign against native villages, resulting in Dutch control of the middle and south of the island.
  • 1718 – Royal Navy Lieutenant Robert Maynard attacks and boards the vessels of the British pirate Edward Teach (best known as “Blackbeard”) off the coast of North Carolina.
    • The casualties on both sides include Maynard’s first officer Mister Hyde and Teach himself.
  • 1837 – Canadian journalist and politician William Lyon Mackenzie calls for a rebellion against the United Kingdom in his essay “To the People of Upper Canada”, published in his newspaper The Constitution.
  • 1940 – World War II: Following the initial Italian invasion, Greek troops counterattack into Italian-occupied Albania and capture Korytsa.
  • 1942 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad: General Friedrich Paulus sends Adolf Hitler a telegram saying that the German 6th Army is surrounded.
  • 1943 – World War II: Cairo Conference: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese Premier Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss ways to defeat Japan.
  • 1943 – Lebanon gains independence from France.
  • 1948 – Chinese Civil War: Elements of the Chinese Communist Second Field Army under Liu Bocheng trap the Nationalist 12th Army, beginning the Shuangduiji Campaign, the largest engagement of the Huaihai Campaign.
  • 1963 – US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated and Texas Governor John Connally is seriously wounded by Lee Harvey Oswald, who also kills Dallas Police officer J.D. Tippit after fleeing the scene.
    • US Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn in as the 36th President of the United States afterwards.
  • 1967 – UN Security Council Resolution 242 is adopted, establishing a set of the principles aimed at guiding negotiations for an Arab-Israeli peace settlement.
  • 1974 – The United Nations General Assembly grants the Palestine Liberation Organisation observer status.
  • 1975 – Juan Carlos is declared King of Spain following the death of Francisco Franco.
  • 1988 – In Palmdale, California, the first prototype B-2 Spirit stealth bomber is revealed.
  • 2003 – Baghdad DHL attempted shootdown incident: Shortly after takeoff, a DHL Express cargo plane is struck on the left wing by a surface-to-air missile and forced to land.
  • 2004 – The Orange Revolution begins in Ukraine, resulting from the presidential elections.
  • 2012 – Ceasefire begins between Hamas in the Gaza Strip and Israel after eight days of violence and 150 deaths.

People (Births)

  • 1698 – Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial, Canadian-American soldier and politician, 10th Governor of Louisiana (d. 1778).
  • 1876 – Emil Beyer, American gymnast and triathlete (d. 1934).
  • 1881 – Enver Pasha, Ottoman general and politician (d. 1922).
  • 1890 – Charles de Gaulle, French general and politician, 18th President of France (d. 1970).
  • 1902 – Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, French general (d. 1947).
  • 1909 – Mikhail Mil, Russian engineer, founded the Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant (d. 1970).
  • 1914 – Peter Townsend, Burmese-English captain and pilot (d. 1995).
  • 1918 – Claiborne Pell, American captain and politician (d. 2009).
  • 1922 – Wiyogo Atmodarminto, Indonesian general and politician, 10th Governor of Jakarta (d. 2012).
  • 1922 – Eugene Stoner, American engineer and weapons designer, designed the AR-15 rifle (d. 1997).
  • 1939 – Mulayam Singh Yadav, Indian politician, 24th Indian Minister of Defence.
  • 1942 – Guion Bluford, American colonel, pilot, and astronaut.
  • 1975 – Joshua Wheeler, American sergeant (d. 2015).
  • 1986 – Oscar Pistorius, South African sprinter.

People (Deaths)

  • 1718 – Blackbeard, English pirate (b. 1680).
  • 1774 – Robert Clive, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Shropshire (b. 1725).
  • 1875 – Henry Wilson, American colonel, journalist, and politician, 18th Vice President of the United States (b. 1812).
  • 1913 – Tokugawa Yoshinobu, Japanese Shōgun (b. 1837).
  • 1941 – Werner Mölders, German colonel and pilot (b. 1915).
  • 1948 – Fakhri Pasha, Turkish general and politician (b. 1868).
  • 1963 – John F. Kennedy, American lieutenant and politician, 35th President of the United States (b. 1917).
  • 2000 – Emil Zátopek, Czech runner (b. 1922).
  • 2012 – Pearl Laska Chamberlain, American pilot (b. 1909).
  • 2015 – Kim Young-sam, South Korean soldier and politician, 7th President of South Korea (b. 1929).

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