What was the London Naval Treaty (1936)?

Introduction The Second London Naval Treaty was an international treaty signed as a result of the Second London Naval Disarmament Conference held in London, the United Kingdom. The conference started on 09 December 1935 and treaty was signed by the participating nations on 25 March 1936. Refer to Washington Naval Treaty (1922) and London Naval… Read More

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What was the London Naval Treaty (1930)?

Introduction The London Naval Treaty, officially the Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament, was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States that was signed on 22 April 1930. Seeking to address issues not covered in the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, which had created tonnage limits for… Read More

What was the Washington Naval Treaty (1922)?

Introduction The Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the Five-Power Treaty, was a treaty signed during 1922 among the major Allies of World War I, which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. Refer to London Naval Treaty (1930) and London Naval Treaty (1936). It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference,… Read More

Who was Ernst Lindemann?

Introduction Otto Ernst Lindemann (28 March 1894 to 27 May 1941) was a German Kapitän zur See (naval captain). He was the only commander of the battleship Bismarck during its eight months of service in World War II. Lindemann joined the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) in 1913, and after his basic military training,… Read More

What is Diffused Lighting Camouflage?

Introduction Diffused lighting camouflage was a form of active camouflage using counter-illumination to enable a ship to match its background, the night sky, that was tested by the Royal Canadian Navy on corvettes during World War II. The principle was discovered by a Canadian professor, Edmund Godfrey Burr, in 1940. It attracted interest because it… Read More

Type 23 Frigate Food & Fuels Stats

Introduction “HMS Northumberland’s sailors spent Christmas away from home as they continued their vital mission protecting UK waters and the nation’s nuclear deterrent. The Type 23 frigate was last at her home port of Devonport in late September and since then has been part of the UK Carrier Strike group during landmark operations in the… Read More

What was the Battle of Calabria (1940)?

Introduction The Battle of Calabria, known to the Italian Navy as the Battle of Punta Stilo, was a naval battle during the Battle of the Mediterranean in the Second World War. Ships of the Italian Regia Marina were opposed by vessels of the British Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy. The battle occurred 30 miles… Read More