What was the Point Four Plan (US)?

Introduction The Point Four Program was a technical assistance programme for “developing countries” announced by United States President Harry S. Truman in his inaugural address on 20 January 1949. It took its name from the fact that it was the fourth foreign policy objective mentioned in the speech. Refer to Marshall Plan. Background By 1947… Read More


What is the US Foreign Operations Administration?

Introduction The Foreign Operations Administration was created in 1953 under the directorship of Harold Stassen. Its purpose “was intended to centralize all governmental operations, as distinguished from policy formulation, that had as their purpose the cooperative development of economic and military strength among the nations of the free world”. It was abolished by Executive Order… Read More

What is the Mutual Security Act of 1951 (US)?

Introduction The Mutual Security Act of 1951 launched a major American foreign aid programme, 1951-1961, of grants to numerous countries. It largely replaced the Marshall Plan. The main goal was to help poor countries develop and to contain the spread of communism. It was signed on 10 October 1951, by President Harry S. Truman. Annual… Read More

Royal Marines (All Arms) Commando Training for Foreign Military Students

What is the All Arms Commando Course? Detailed information on the All Arms Commando Course (AACC) can be found here. The AACC is undertaken at the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines (CTCRM), Lympstone, on the South coast of England. Emphasis is on fitness and stamina, and all students must be physically prepared on arrival. Students… Read More

Enemies & Allies…

“Wars teach us not to love our enemies, but to hate our allies.” W.L. George (1882 to 1926) Anglo-French writer: born of British parents, but grew up in Paris and did not learn English until the age of twenty. Chiefly known for his popular fiction, which included feminist, pacifist, and pro-labour themes.

Finest Human Qualities…

“The world will never have lasting peace so long as men reserve for war the finest human qualities. Peace, no less than war, requires idealism and self-sacrifice and a righteous and dynamic faith.” John Foster Dulles (1888 to 1959) A US secretary of state (1953–59) under President Dwight D. Eisenhower (a WWII army general). He… Read More

Peace with Honour…

“This is the second time in our history that there has come back from Germany to Downing Street peace with honour. I believe it is peace for our time.” Neville Chamberlain (1869 to 1940) As Minister of Health, he introduced the Local Government Act of 1929 reforming the Poor Law, effectively laying the foundations of… Read More