What was the International Authority for the Ruhr?

Introduction The International Authority for the Ruhr (IAR) was an international body established in 1949 by the Western Allies to regulate the coal and steel industries of the Ruhr area in West Germany. Its seat was in Düsseldorf. The Ruhr Authority was set out in the communiqué issued on 07 June 1948, after the London… Read More


What was the Dawes Plan (1924)?

Introduction The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was a plan in 1924 that successfully resolved the issue of World War I reparations that Germany had to pay. It ended a crisis in European diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles. The plan provided for… Read More

What was the Occupation of the Ruhr?

Introduction The Occupation of the Ruhr (German: Ruhrbesetzung) was a period of military occupation of the Ruhr region of Germany by France and Belgium between 11 January 1923 and 25 August 1925. France and Belgium occupied the heavily industrialised Ruhr Valley in response to Germany defaulting on reparation payments dictated by the victorious powers after… Read More