What were the Wars of Scottish Independence (1296-1357)?

Introduction The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War (1296-1328) began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in… Read More


What was the Battle of Fornovo (1495)?

Introduction The Battle of Fornovo took place 30 km (19 miles) southwest of the city of Parma on 06 July 1495. It was fought as King Charles VIII of France left Naples upon hearing the news of the grand coalition assembled against him. Despite the numerical advantage of their opponents, the French managed to pass… Read More

What was the First Italian War (1494-1498)?

Introduction The First Italian War, sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIII’s Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander… Read More

What was the Battle of Gammelsdorf (1313)?

Introduction The Battle of Gammelsdorf (German: Schlacht von Gammelsdorf) took place in November 1313. Background The cause of the skirmish was the guardianship of the underage duke of Lower Bavaria. This was sought by both Duke Louis the Bavarian and Duke Frederick I of Austria. It circled around the question of who would execute tutelage… Read More

What was the Cabochien Revolt (1413)?

Introduction The Cabochien revolt was an episode in the civil war between the Armagnacs and the Burgundians which was in turn a part of the Hundred Years’ War. Background In the spring of 1413, John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, managed to raise the people of Paris and impose a reform called the Cabochien ordinance.… Read More

What was the Second Northern War (1655-1660)?

Introduction The Second Northern War (1655-1660, also First or Little Northern War; and one of several Northern Wars) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655-1660), the Moscow Tsardom (1656-1658), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657-1660) and Denmark-Norway (1657-1658 and 1658-1660). The Dutch Republic often intervened against Sweden in an informal trade… Read More

What was the War of the Public Weal (1465)?

Introduction The League of the Public Weal (French: La ligue du Bien public) was an alliance of feudal nobles organised in 1465 in defiance of the centralised authority of King Louis XI of France. It was masterminded by Charles the Bold, Count of Charolais, son of the Duke of Burgundy, with the king’s brother Charles,… Read More