Introduction The agōgē (Greek: ἀγωγή in Attic Greek, or ἀγωγά, agōgā in Doric Greek) was the rigorous education and training programme mandated for all male Spartan citizens, except for the firstborn son in the ruling houses, Eurypontid and Agiad. The training involved cultivating loyalty to the Spartan group, military training (e.g. pain tolerance), hunting, dancing,… Read More
“No speech of admonition can be so fine that it will at once make those who hear it good men if they are not good already; it would surely not make archers good if they had not had practice in shooting, neither could it make lancers good, nor horsemen; it cannot even make men able… Read More
“That Greek philosophers of the time never, or hardly ever, experienced war did not stop them pontificating on the subject. The philosophers, however, did come across soldiers. Their attitudes to the members of the army who protected them were marked by alienation, contempt, and fear. They considered that the life of a soldier was one… Read More
“One type of expense incurred in modern wars was not always present in the ancient world: paying the troops. As we have seen, in the classical city state citizenship was bound up with military service. For a long time city states thus had no need to pay their citizen-soldiers. In the Greek world the only… Read More
“Ubi concordia, ibi victoria.” “Where is the unity, there is the victory.” Publilius Syrus (85 to 43 BC) Publilius Syrus was a Latin mime writer contemporary with Cicero, chiefly remembered for a collection of versified aphorisms that were extracted by scholars from his mimes, probably in the 1st century AD.
“Only the dead have seen the end to war.” Plato (428 to 348 BCE) Plato was an ancient Greek philosopher, student of Socrates (c.470-399 BCE), teacher of Aristotle (384-322 BCE), and founder of the Academy, best known as the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence.
“There is nothing remarkable about being loyal when things are going well; what is remembered and remembered for ever is when people stand by their friends in their times of misfortune.” (Xenophon, 1978, p.230). Xenophon was a Greek historian and philosopher whose numerous surviving works are valuable for their depiction of late Classical Greece. His… Read More