An Overview of the Neurobiological Effects of Physical Exercise

Introduction The neurobiological effects of physical exercise are numerous and involve a wide range of interrelated effects on brain structure, brain function, and cognition. A large body of research in humans has demonstrated that consistent aerobic exercise (e.g. 30 minutes every day) induces persistent improvements in certain cognitive functions, healthy alterations in gene expression in… Read More


What is EPOC?

Introduction Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, informally termed afterburn) is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity. Background In historical contexts the term “oxygen debt” was popularised to explain or perhaps attempt to quantify anaerobic energy expenditure, particularly as regards lactic acid/lactate metabolism; in fact, the term “oxygen debt” is still widely… Read More

Is OptoGait Useful in the Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Treadmill Running Parameters?

Research Paper Title Agreement Between the OptoGait and Instrumented Treadmill System for the Quantification of Spatiotemporal Treadmill Running Parameters. Background The measurement of spatiotemporal gait parameters is commonly utilized to assess gait in healthy and injured individuals. The OptoGait system is a portable system and can be mounted to a treadmill to collect data in… Read More

Quick March: What is the Effect of Footwear on Ground Reaction Force?

Research Paper Title The Effects of British Army Footwear on Ground Reaction Force and Temporal Parameters of British Army Foot Drill. Background High rates of occupational training-related lower-limb musculoskeletal (MSK) overuse injuries are reported for British Army recruits during basic training. Foot drill is a repetitive impact loading occupational activity and involves striking the ground… Read More

Review on the Theory of Training for Muscle Size & Strength

Research Paper Title The Basics of Training for Muscle Size and Strength: A Brief Review on the Theory. Background The periodisation of resistance exercise is often touted as the most effective strategy for optimising muscle size and strength adaptations. This narrative persists despite a lack of experimental evidence to demonstrate its superiority. In addition, the… Read More

4 Reasons Why Electrolytes are Essential for the Body

Like the oil in your car, electrolytes may not cause your body to run but they are needed to keep every organ in your body running smoothly. Electrolytes are essential for the proper functioning of the digestive, cardiac, nervous, and muscular systems. When you lack electrolytes, you will feel weak, and, if there is a… Read More

What is a Blood Type?

There are two main blood groupings in humans, called ABO and rhesus. Both are genetically determined. The ABO system has three gene variants known as alleles: A, B and O. Each of us inherits two, one from each parent. A and B are dominant and O is recessive. People who inherit two Os are blood… Read More