Cardiovascular Conditioning: Is Faster Better?

The first step in any conditioning programme is to build an aerobic base. This requires two to four sessions per week of continuous aerobic activity (e.g. jogging or brisk walking) for 15 to 30 minutes at a moderate intensity. The target heart rate for many people during this form of exercise is approximately 130 to… Read More


Mental Health & Exercise: Getting the ‘Dose’ Right

It is now well-known, and generally accepted, that exercise is beneficial for mental health. For example, we know that: 1. Enjoyment Matters Research demonstrates the pleasure response (officially known as affective valence) to a single bout of aerobic exercise can predict participation in the long-term, i.e. six- and twelve months later. The less pleasurable the… Read More

Physical Activity: Linking Emotion & Metabolic Heart Rate

Research Paper Title Improving Real-Life Estimates of Emotion Based on Heart Rate: A Perspective on Taking Metabolic Heart Rate Into Account. Background Extracting information about emotion from heart rate in real life is challenged by the concurrent effect of physical activity on heart rate caused by metabolic need. “Non-metabolic heart rate,” which refers to the… Read More

Linking Muscle Activity & Increased Oxygen Cost during Moderate Exercise following Heavy Exercise

Research Paper Title Prior heavy exercise increases oxygen cost during moderate exercise without associated change in surface EMG. Background The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that prior heavy exercise results in a higher oxygen cost during a subsequent bout of moderate exercise due to changes in muscle activity. Methods Eight male subjects (25… Read More

Maximal Isokinetic Protocol & EMG Normalisation

Research Paper Title A maximal isokinetic pedalling exercise for EMG normalization in cycling. Background An isometric maximal voluntary contraction (iMVC) is mostly used for the purpose of EMG normalization, a procedure described in the scientific literature in order to compare muscle activity among different muscles and subjects. However, the use of iMVC has certain limitations.… Read More

How Many Calories Does a Press-up (Push-Up) Burn?

Introduction Estimates of exactly how many calories a single press-up (or push-up) burns vary somewhat, from about 0.29 calories each to 0.36 calories per press-up, depending on the research you cite (Cohen, 2012; McCall, 2017). However, a 2014 study from researchers at Arizona State University (Vezina et al., 2014) (and based on an earlier thesis… Read More

Could Measurement of Circulating CF n-DNA be a Sensitive Tool for Monitoring Acute Exercise Effects in the Human Body?

Research Paper Title Repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise increase circulating cell free nuclear and mitochondrial DNA without development of tolerance in healthy men. Objective Acute single strenuous exercise increases circulating cell free DNA (cf DNA). The researchers tested whether three repeated bouts of exhaustive exercise induced the cf DNA response without development of tolerance in… Read More