Avoid & Master…

“Beware lest in your anxiety to avoid war you obtain a master.” Demosthenes (384 BC to 322) An Athenian statesman, recognised as the greatest of ancient Greek orators, who roused Athens to oppose Philip of Macedon and, later, his son Alexander the Great. His speeches provide valuable information on the political, social, and economic life… Read More


The Wisdom of Crowds: A Plataean & Spartan Perspective

“THE Plataeans were besieged: walled in by their enemies, the Spartans. They could make ladders to climb out, but how tall should they be? Citizens were asked to guess the wall’s height by counting its bricks, with the most popular estimate taken as correct. It worked: 212 duly escaped. This episode from 428 BC is the first known use of the wisdom… Read More

Solon’s Top 10 Tips

In giving advice, seek to help, not please, your friend. Men keep agreements when it is to the advantage of neither to break them. Put more trust in nobility of character than in an oath. Speech is the mirror of action. Reprove thy friend privately; commend him publicly. Clear your mind of can’t. I grow… Read More

Ancient Soldiers & Early Statistics

“In ancient times, the Athenian general and historian Thucydides described an attempt by soldiers to estimate the height of a wall before a siege. The calculation was made by  counting rows of bricks. Though “some [soldiers] might miss the right calculation,” he wrote, “most would hit upon it”. Making siege ladders based on the most… Read More

Battlefield Realities: The Aftermath of the Fight

Research Paper Title Ancestral Custom: War Dead in Ancient Greece. Abstract In the aftermath of battle, those who survived were left to contemplate an eerie spectacle. What confronted them was a scene of distorted humanity: a field of broken bodies, abandoned weapons and the mournful cries of the wounded and dying. Birds circled expectantly overhead, whilst dogs scavenged… Read More