Soldiers: Guilt, Taboo’s & Killing

“There is the guilt all soldiers feel for having broken the taboo against killing, a guilt as old as war itself. Add to this the soldier’s sense of shame for having fought in actions that resulted, indirectly or directly, in the deaths of civilians. Then pile on top of that an attitude of social opprobrium,… Read More

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Aerial Bombing: What is the Tipping Point for the Civilian Population?

In a doctoral thesis, Ikle suggested that the proponents of airpower had overestimated the relationship between the intensity of aerial bombing and the density of a city’s surviving population. “Ikle was impressed by the amount of urban hardship and overcrowding that people could endure. But there were limits. The tipping point seemed to be reached… Read More

Aerial Bombing: A Formula for Estimating Residential Overcrowding

In a doctoral thesis, Ikle suggested that the proponents of airpower had overestimated the relationship between the intensity of aerial bombing and the density of a city’s surviving population. “Ikle devised a simple formula to predict how overcrowded the houses of a bombed-out city might become. If P1 = population of a city before destruction,… Read More

Aerial Bombing: Elasticity of Supply of Urban Housing

In a doctoral thesis, Ikle suggested that the proponents of airpower had overestimated the relationship between the intensity of aerial bombing and the density of a city’s surviving population. “…the Royal Air Force strategy of targeting residential areas and ‘de-housing’ civilians proved disappointing. The supply of urban housing was much more elastic than expected, as… Read More

Bomb Destruction: Is There A Social Impact?

“In 1949, [Fred Charles] Ikle left his studies in Chicago and travelled through bombed-out Germany. The war hadn’t touched his family directly, and he wanted to know how people coped with devastation on such a massive scale. One of the cities he visited, Hamburg, had suffered roughly the same number of casualties as Nagasaki [target… Read More