What is the Impact of the Occupational Environment of a Submerged Submarine on Cardiometabolic Health of Royal Navy Submariners?

When on patrol, submariners spend several months submerged and isolated. They work shifts, endure a disrupted pattern of sleep, and eat a restricted diet. Space for physical activity is limited and there is no exposure to natural sunlight. Surprisingly, none of these seems to have a deleterious effect on biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk (Gunner et… Read More


Down the Hatch: Submarine Blunder, Nearly

In June this year a £2.4 billion Indian nuclear submarine nearly sank after a hatch was left open. But this is not the only costly submarine error this year. The arrival of Spain’s new diesel-electric Isaac Pera submarine class, was delayed because it was 75 tonnes too heavy. Although the ability to sink quickly to… Read More

What was Operation Sandblast?

25 April 1960 – First submerged circumnavigation of the Earth was completed by a Triton submarine. Operation Sandblast was the code name for the first submerged circumnavigation of the world executed by the United States Navy nuclear-powered radar picket submarine USS Triton (SSRN-586) in 1960 while under the command of Captain Edward L. Beach, USN.… Read More

70th Anniversary of the PLA Navy

This year marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China and, today, 23 April 2019 is the 70th founding anniversary of the PLA Navy. In recent decades, China has undertaken a series of reforms to modernise its military. It has boosted its submarine force over the last 20 years, building… Read More

Mistakes & Fears…

“The greatest mistake you can make in this life is to be continually fearing you will make one.” Elbert Hubbard (1856 to 1915) Elbert Green Hubbard was an American writer, publisher, artist, and philosopher. Elbert and his second wife, Alice Moore Hubbard, died aboard the RMS Lusitania when it was sunk by a German submarine… Read More

Royal Navy Recruitment Statistics for Submariner Roles (2011-2012)

In the training year 2011/12 there were 723 applications for Royal Navy Ratings Submarine roles. Of these applications: 28% were rejected: 4% for failing eligibility criteria; 15% for failing the RT psychometric test; 1 % at interview; 1 % for fitness; and 7% for medical reasons. 25% voluntarily withdrew their application. 25% went on to enter… Read More

Decompressing Recompression Chamber Attendants: Oxygen vs Air Breathing

Research Paper Title Decompressing recompression chamber attendants during Australian submarine rescue operations. Background Inside chamber attendants rescuing survivors from a pressurised, distressed submarine may themselves accumulate a decompression obligation which may exceed the limits of Defense and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine tables presently used by the Royal Australian Navy. This study assessed the probability… Read More