Who was Vasily Aleksandrovich Arkhipov?

Introduction Vasily Aleksandrovich Arkhipov (Russian: Василий Александрович Архипов, 30 January 1926 to 19 August 1998) was a Soviet Navy officer credited with preventing a Soviet nuclear strike (and, potentially, all-out nuclear war) during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Such an attack likely would have caused a major global thermonuclear response. As flotilla commander and second-in-command of… Read More

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What is the Submarine Command Course?

Introduction The Submarine Command Course (SMCC), previously known as the Commanding Officers Qualifying Course (COQC), and informally known as The Perisher because of its supposed low success rate, is a training course for naval officers preparing to take command of a submarine (Navy News, 2021). “The sailors spent months learning the deadly art of submarine… Read More

Who was Eugene B. Fluckey?

Introduction Eugene Bennett Fluckey (05 October 1913 to 28 June 2007), nicknamed “Lucky Fluckey”, was a United States Navy rear admiral who received the Medal of Honour and four Navy Crosses during his service as a submarine commander in World War II. Early Life Fluckey was born in Washington, D.C. on 05 October 1913. He… Read More

Who was Wolfgang Luth?

Introduction Wolfgang Lüth (15 October 1913 to 14 May 1945) was the second most successful German U-boat captain of World War II. His career record of 46 merchant ships plus the French submarine Doris sunk during 15 war patrols, with a total tonnage of 225,204 gross register tons (GRT), was second only to that of… Read More

Who was Charles Fryatt?

Introduction Charles Algernon Fryatt (02 December 1872 to 27 July 1916) was a British mariner who was executed by the Germans for attempting to ram a U-boat in 1915 (Refer to World War I). When his ship, the SS Brussels, was captured off the Netherlands in 1916, he was court-martialled and sentenced to death because… Read More

What is Intensified Submarine Warfare?

Introduction Intensified submarine warfare, a form of submarine warfare practiced by Germany in the first months of 1916, represented a German political compromise between the internationally recognised Prize Rules (which made submarines virtually ineffective as commerce raiders) and unrestricted submarine warfare (in which submarines sink merchant ships operating in designated War Zones without warning, and… Read More

What is Unrestricted Submarine Warfare?

Introduction Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as “cruiser rules”). Prize rules call for warships to search merchantmen and place crews in “a place of safety” (for which lifeboats do not… Read More