What is the Submarine Command Course?

Introduction The Submarine Command Course (SMCC), previously known as the Commanding Officers Qualifying Course (COQC), and informally known as The Perisher because of its supposed low success rate, is a training course for naval officers preparing to take command of a submarine (Navy News, 2021). “The sailors spent months learning the deadly art of submarine… Read More

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Who was Wolfgang Luth?

Introduction Wolfgang Lüth (15 October 1913 to 14 May 1945) was the second most successful German U-boat captain of World War II. His career record of 46 merchant ships plus the French submarine Doris sunk during 15 war patrols, with a total tonnage of 225,204 gross register tons (GRT), was second only to that of… Read More

What is Intensified Submarine Warfare?

Introduction Intensified submarine warfare, a form of submarine warfare practiced by Germany in the first months of 1916, represented a German political compromise between the internationally recognised Prize Rules (which made submarines virtually ineffective as commerce raiders) and unrestricted submarine warfare (in which submarines sink merchant ships operating in designated War Zones without warning, and… Read More

What is Unrestricted Submarine Warfare?

Introduction Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as “cruiser rules”). Prize rules call for warships to search merchantmen and place crews in “a place of safety” (for which lifeboats do not… Read More

What is Submarine Warfare?

Introduction Submarine warfare is one of the four divisions of underwater warfare, the others being anti-submarine warfare, mine warfare and mine countermeasures. Submarine warfare consists primarily of diesel and nuclear submarines using torpedoes, missiles or nuclear weapons, as well as advanced sensing equipment, to attack other submarines, ships, or land targets. Submarines may also be… Read More