An Overview of the Guerrilla War in the Baltic States (1944-1956)

Introduction The guerrilla war in the Baltic states was an insurgency waged by Latvian, Lithuanian and Estonian partisans against the Soviet Union from 1944 to 1956. Known alternatively as the “Forest Brothers”, the “Brothers of the Wood” and the “Forest Friars” (Estonian: metsavennad, Latvian: mežabrāļi, Lithuanian: žaliukai), these partisans fought against Soviet forces during their… Read More


What is a Stay-Behind Operation?

Introduction In a stay-behind operation, a country places secret operatives or organisations in its own territory, for use in case an enemy occupies that territory. If this occurs, the operatives would then form the basis of a resistance movement or act as spies from behind enemy lines. Small-scale operations may cover discrete areas, but larger… Read More

What is a Military Government?

Introduction A military government is generally any form of government that is administered by military forces, whether or not this government is legal under the laws of the jurisdiction at issue, and whether this government is formed by natives or by an occupying power. It is usually carried out by military workers. Types of military… Read More

What is the Restoration of Sovereignty Day (Japan)?

Introduction The Restoration of Sovereignty Day (主権回復の日, Shuken kaifuku no hi) is a new public commemorative event on 28 April, proposed by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe in 2012 and first formally celebrated in 2013. It marks the end of the American occupation of Japan on 28 April 1952. It has been described as “part… Read More