What is a Stay-Behind Operation?

Introduction In a stay-behind operation, a country places secret operatives or organisations in its own territory, for use in case an enemy occupies that territory. If this occurs, the operatives would then form the basis of a resistance movement or act as spies from behind enemy lines. Small-scale operations may cover discrete areas, but larger… Read More


What was Operation Gladio (1956-1990)?

Introduction Operation Gladio is the codename for clandestine “stay-behind” operations of armed resistance that were organised by the Western Union (WU), and subsequently by NATO and the CIA, in collaboration with several European intelligence agencies. The operation was designed for a potential Warsaw Pact invasion and conquest of Europe. Although Gladio specifically refers to the… Read More