What was the Colfax Massacre (1873)?

Introduction The Colfax massacre, sometimes referred to by the euphemism Colfax riot, occurred on Easter Sunday, 13 April 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish. An estimated 62-153 black militia men were killed while surrendering to a mob of former Confederate soldiers, members of the Ku Klux Klan and the White League. Three… Read More


What was the Battle of Five Forks (1865)?

Introduction The Battle of Five Forks was fought on 01 April 1865, southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, around the road junction of Five Forks, Dinwiddie County, at the end of the Siege of Petersburg, near the conclusion of the American Civil War. The Union Army commanded by Major General Philip Sheridan defeated a Confederate force from… Read More

What was the Cornerstone Speech (1861)?

Introduction The Cornerstone Speech, also known as the Cornerstone Address, was an oration given by Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens at the Athenaeum in Savannah, Georgia, on 21 March 1861, delivered extemporaneously a few weeks before the American Civil War (1861-1865) began with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter. Stephens’s speech defended slavery as… Read More

What was the Wilmot Proviso (1846)?

Introduction The Wilmot Proviso was an unsuccessful 1846 proposal in the United States Congress to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican-American War. The conflict over the Wilmot Proviso was one of the major events leading to the American Civil War (1861-1865). Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania first introduced the proviso in… Read More

What is Liberation and Freedom Day (2019)?

Introduction In a unanimous vote, on 01 July 2019, the City Council of Charlottesville, Virginia, established a new city holiday, Liberation and Freedom Day, to be celebrated on 03 March 3. Background Union Army troops, under the command of Major General Philip Sheridan, arrived in Charlottesville on 03 March 1865 (refer to American Civil War),… Read More

What was the American Civil War (1861-1865)?

Introduction The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 12 April 1861 to 09 May 1865 (last shot fired 22 June 1865), fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. The civil… Read More

What was the Battle of Franklin (1864)?

Introduction The Battle of Franklin was fought on 30 November 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin-Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army. Confederate Lieutenant General John Bell Hood’s Army of Tennessee conducted numerous frontal assaults against fortified… Read More