What are Surrendered Enemy Personnel?

Introduction Surrendered Enemy Personnel (SEP) is a designation for captive enemy soldiers (similar to the US Disarmed Enemy Forces). Background It was most commonly used by British forces towards German forces in Europe, and towards Japanese and associated forces in Asia after the end of World War II. On 01 March 1947 the US stated… Read More

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What was Operation Claret (1964-1966)?

Introduction Claret was the code name given to operations conducted from about July 1964 until July 1966 from East Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah) across the border in Indonesian Kalimantan during the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1963-1966). They were instigated by the Director of Borneo Operations (DOBOPS) Major General Walter Walker with the agreement of the British and… Read More

What was the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation (1963-1966)?

Introduction The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation or Borneo confrontation (also known by its Indonesian/Malay name, Konfrontasi) was a violent conflict from 20 January 1963 to 11 August 1966 that stemmed from Indonesia’s opposition to the creation of Malaysia. The creation of Malaysia was the amalgamation of the Federation of Malaya (now Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore and the crown… Read More

What was the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)?

Introduction The Malayan Emergency was a guerrilla war fought in the Federation of Malaya between pro-independence fighters of the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the Malayan Communist Party’s (MCP) armed wing, against the armed forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth. The war was fought over attempts by communist forces to gain independence for Malaya… Read More

What was the Mau Mau Uprising (1952-1960)?

Introduction The Mau Mau Uprising (1952 to 1960), also known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, and the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony (1920-1963) between the Kenya Land and Freedom Army (KLFA), also known as Mau Mau, and the British authorities. Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru… Read More