What is Medal Inflation?

Introduction Medal inflation is a term used by the media particularly in the United States to describe the increase in the number of medals awarded to the armed forces in recent times and a perceived devaluing of medals because of this. It has been discussed since at least 1979 when a book was published relating… Read More


What is Medal of Honour Day (US)?

Introduction Medal of Honor Day is a United States federal observance that is celebrated every year on 25 March. Background It was created to honour the “heroism and sacrifice of Medal of Honor recipients for the United States.” The holiday has been celebrated since 1991, when George H.W. Bush signed Public Law 101-564 on 15… Read More

What is the Gold Medal of Military Valour (Italy)?

Introduction The Gold Medal of Military Valour (Italian: Medaglia d’oro al valor militare) is an Italian medal established on 21 May 1793 by King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia for deeds of outstanding gallantry in war by junior officers and soldiers. The face of the medal displayed the profile of the king, and on its… Read More

Who was Filippo Illuminato?

Introduction Filippo Illuminato (21 August 1930 to 28 September 1943) was an Italian partisan who died attacking Nazi German troops during the Four days of Naples in World War II. He was posthumously awarded the Gold Medal of Military Valour, Italy’s highest award for gallantry. Background On 03 September 1943, the Allies and the Kingdom… Read More

Who was Paul Ray Smith?

Introduction Paul Ray Smith (24 September 1969 to 04 April 2003) was a United States Army soldier who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honour for his actions during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. While serving with B Company, 11th Engineer Battalion, 3rd Infantry Division in Baghdad, his team was attacked by a group of… Read More

Who was Richard Bong?

Introduction Richard Ira Bong (24 September 1920 to 06 August 1945) was a United States Army Air Forces major and Medal of Honour recipient in World War II. He was one of the most decorated American fighter pilots and the country’s top flying ace in the war, credited with shooting down 40 Japanese aircraft, all… Read More

Who was Anders Lassen?

Introduction Anders Frederik Emil Victor Schau Lassen, VC, MC & Two Bars (22 September 1920 to 09 April 1945) was a highly decorated Danish soldier, who was the only non-Commonwealth recipient of the British Victoria Cross in the Second World War. He was posthumously awarded the United Kingdom’s highest gallantry award for his actions during… Read More