Introduction A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war. It involves the state’s use of military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with its policies or objectives. The term can be used to describe… Read More
Introduction Hybrid warfare is a theory of military strategy, first proposed by Frank Hoffman, which employs political warfare and blends conventional warfare, irregular warfare and cyberwarfare with other influencing methods, such as fake news, diplomacy, lawfare and foreign electoral intervention. By combining kinetic operations with subversive efforts, the aggressor intends to avoid attribution or retribution.… Read More
Introduction Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation. The forces on each side are well-defined, and fight using weapons that primarily target the opponent’s military. It is normally fought using conventional weapons, and not with chemical, biological, or nuclear… Read More
“The quickest way to end a war is to lose it.” George Orwell (1903 to 1950) Eric Arthur Blair, better known as George Orwell was an English novelist, essayist, and critic famous for his novels Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-four (1949), the latter a profound anti-utopian novel that examines the dangers of totalitarian rule.
“To have good soldiers, a nations must always be at war.” Napoleon Bonaparte (1769 to 1821) Also known as Napoleon I, the Corsican or the Little Corporal, he was a French general, first consul of France (1799-1804), and emperor of the French (1804-1814/15), one of the most celebrated personages in the history of the West.… Read More
“Guerrilla units formed from the people may gradually develop into regular units and, when operating as such, employ the tactics of orthodox mobile war … While it is improper to confuse orthodox with guerrilla operations, it is equally improper to consider that there is a chasm between the two.” Mao Tse-Tung (1893 to 1976) Mao… Read More
“Mankind must put an end to war or war will put an end to mankind.” John F. Kennedy (1917 to 1963) in a speech to the United Nations General Assembly on 25 September 1961. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (aka JFK) was the 35th president of the United States (1961–63), who faced a number of foreign crises,… Read More