What is New Generation Warfare?

Introduction New generation warfare (Russian: Война нового поколения) is a Russian theory of unconventional warfare which prioritises the psychological and people-centred aspects over traditional military concerns, and emphasizes a phased approach of non-military influence such that armed conflict, if it arises, is much less costly in human or economic terms for the aggressor than it… Read More


What is a Tripwire Force?

Introduction A tripwire force (sometimes called a glass plate) is a strategic approach in deterrence theory. The tripwire force is a military force smaller than that of a potential adversary, which is designed to signal the defending side’s commitment to an armed response to future aggression without triggering a security spiral. Concept A tripwire force… Read More

Who was Carl von Clausewitz?

Introduction Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (01 June 1780 to 16 November 1831) was a Prussian general and military theorist who stressed the “moral” (meaning, in modern terms, psychological) and political aspects of war. His most notable work, Vom Kriege (On War), was unfinished at his death. Clausewitz was a realist in many… Read More

Who was August Otto Ruhle von Liliestern?

Introduction August Otto Rühle von Lilienstern (1780 to 1847) was a Prussian officer, who joined Scharnhorst’s Academy for Officers in the same class as Carl von Clausewitz. Later, they both taught at the Prussian General War School, which would become the Prussian War Academy, and Rühle became Clausewitz’ second successor as its director. Background Rühle… Read More

What is Military Theory?

Introduction Military theory is the analysis of normative behaviour and trends in military affairs and military history, beyond simply describing events in war. Outline Theories and conceptions of warfare have varied in different places throughout human history. The Chinese Sun Tzu is recognised by scholars to be one of the earliest military theorists. His now-iconic… Read More

Who was Jan Gotlib Bloch?

Introduction Jan Gotlib (Bogumił) Bloch (Russian: Иван Станиславович Блиох or Блох) (24 July 1836, Radom to 25 December 1901/1902, Warsaw) was a Polish banker and railway financier who devoted his private life to the study of modern industrial warfare. Born Jewish and a convert to Calvinism, he spent considerable effort to opposing the prevalent Antisemitic… Read More

What is Just War Theory?

Introduction Just war theory (Latin: jus bellum justum) is a doctrine, also referred to as a tradition, of military ethics studied by military leaders, theologians, ethicists and policy makers. The purpose of the doctrine is to ensure war is morally justifiable through a series of criteria, all of which must be met for a war… Read More