An Overview of the Indian Army’s Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School

Introduction The Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School (CIJWS) in Vairengte, Mizoram, India is a training and research establishment of the Indian Army specialising in unconventional warfare, especially counter-insurgency and guerrilla warfare. CIJWS is one of the premier counter-insurgency training institutions in the world. The school’s motto is to “fight the guerrilla like a guerrilla”. Brief… Read More


An Overview of Special Reconnaissance

Introduction Special reconnaissance (SR) is conducted by small units, such as a reconnaissance (recon) team, made up of highly trained military personnel, usually from special forces units and/or military intelligence organisations. Special reconnaissance teams operate behind enemy lines, avoiding direct combat and detection by the enemy. As a role, SR is distinct from commando operations,… Read More

What is a Clandestine Cell System?

Introduction A clandestine cell system is a method for organising a group of people, such as resistance fighters, sleeper agents, mobsters, or terrorists, to make it harder for the police or military to catch them. In a cell structure, each of the small groups of people in the cell know the identities of the people… Read More

An Overview of (Military) Partisans

Introduction A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity (refer to unconventional warfare). The term can apply to the field element of resistance movements. The most common use in present… Read More

What is Conventional Warfare?

Introduction Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation. The forces on each side are well-defined, and fight using weapons that primarily target the opponent’s military. It is normally fought using conventional weapons, and not with chemical, biological, or nuclear… Read More

What is Unconventional Warfare?

Introduction Unconventional warfare (UW) is the support of a foreign insurgency or resistance movement against its government or an occupying power. Whereas conventional warfare is used to reduce the opponent’s military capability directly through attacks and manoeuvres, UW is an attempt to achieve victory indirectly through a proxy force. UW contrasts with conventional warfare in… Read More