What was the American Civil War (1861-1865)?

Introduction The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 12 April 1861 to 09 May 1865 (last shot fired 22 June 1865), fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. The civil… Read More


What was the Battle of Bedriacum (69 AD)?

Introduction The Battle of Bedriacum refers to two battles fought during the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69) near the village of Bedriacum (now Calvatone), about 35 kilometres (22 miles) from the town of Cremona in northern Italy. The fighting in fact took place between Bedriacum and Cremona, and the battles are sometimes called… Read More

What was the Battle of Edgehill (1642)?

Introduction The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War. It was fought near Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday, 23 October 1642. All attempts at constitutional compromise between King Charles and Parliament broke down early in 1642. Both the King and Parliament raised… Read More

Civil War & Ideology…

“Things looked very different if you were a participant in civil war. Although its foundation myth included fratricide, as Romulus killed Remus, and after the internal conflicts which brought down the Republican form of government civil war haunted the Roman imagination, Rome during most of its history was rather better than Greek cities at avoiding… Read More

All Brothers…

“All wars are civil wars, because all men are brothers.” Francois Fenelon (1651 to 1715) François de Salignac de La Mothe-Fénelon was a French archbishop, theologian, and man of letters whose liberal views on politics and education and whose involvement in a controversy over the nature of mystical prayer caused concerted opposition from church and… Read More