What was the Red Terror (1936-1939)?

Introduction Red Terror (Spanish: Terror Rojo) is the name given by historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War by sections of nearly all the leftist groups. News of the rightist military uprising in July 1936 unleashed a political response, and no Republican controlled region escaped… Read More


What was the White Terror (1936-1975)?

Introduction In the history of Spain, the White Terror (Spanish: Terror Blanco; also known as the Francoist Repression, la Represión franquista) describes the political repression, including executions and rapes, which were carried out by the Nationalist faction during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), as well as during the first nine years of the regime of… Read More

What is a Fifth Column?

Introduction A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group or nation from within, usually in favour of an enemy group or another nation. According to Harris Mylonas and Scott Radnitz, “fifth columns” are “domestic actors who work to undermine the national interest, in cooperation with external rivals of the state.”… Read More

What was the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)?

Introduction The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española) was a civil war in Spain fought from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists, of the communist and syndicalist variety, fought against a revolt by the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, monarchists,… Read More

What was Tragic Week (Spain) (1909)?

Introduction Tragic Week (in Catalan la Setmana Tràgica, in Spanish la Semana Trágica) (25 July 1909 to 02 August 1909) was a series of violent confrontations between the Spanish army and anarchists, socialists and republicans of Barcelona and other cities in Catalonia, Spain, during the last week of July 1909. It was caused by the… Read More

Who was Yank Levy?

Introduction Bert “Yank” Levy (05 October 1897 to 02 September 1965) was a Canadian soldier, socialist, military instructor and author/pamphleteer of one of the first manuals on guerrilla warfare, which was widely circulated with more than a half million published. He served with irregular forces in several parts of the world in the 1920s and… Read More

What was the Italian Invasion of France (1940)?

Introduction The Italian invasion of France (10 to 25 June 1940), also called the Battle of the Alps, was the first major Italian engagement of World War II and the last major engagement of the Battle of France. The Italian entry into the war widened its scope considerably in Africa and the Mediterranean Sea. The… Read More