What is Ex Parte Vallandigham (1864)?

Introduction Ex parte Vallandigham, 68 U.S. (1 Wall.) 243 (1864), is a United States Supreme Court case, involving a former congressman Clement Vallandigham of Ohio, who had violated an Army order against the public expression of sympathy for the Confederate States and their cause. Vallandigham was tried before a military tribunal by Major General Ambrose… Read More


What was the Colfax Massacre (1873)?

Introduction The Colfax massacre, sometimes referred to by the euphemism Colfax riot, occurred on Easter Sunday, 13 April 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish. An estimated 62-153 black militia men were killed while surrendering to a mob of former Confederate soldiers, members of the Ku Klux Klan and the White League. Three… Read More

What was the American Civil War (1861-1865)?

Introduction The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 12 April 1861 to 09 May 1865 (last shot fired 22 June 1865), fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. The civil… Read More

Wrong Place, Right Leader…

“It was indeed seldom that [Southern] officers were guilty of cowardice upon the field of battle; but they were often in the wrong place, fighting as common soldiers, when they should have been directing others.” General Stonewall Jackson (1924 to 1863) Stonewall Jackson, byname of Thomas Jonathan Jackson, was a Confederate general in the American… Read More

What was Sherman’s March to the Sea (1864)?

Introduction Sherman’s March to the Sea (also known as the Savannah Campaign or simply Sherman’s March) was a military campaign of the American Civil War conducted through Georgia from 15 November to 21 December 1864 by Major General William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army. The campaign began with Sherman’s troops leaving the captured city… Read More

The Moral Effect…

“The moral effect of result upon troops must never be overlooked.” Major General J.M. Schofield (1831 to 1906), from the Inaugural Address to the Journal of the Military Service Institute of the United States, 11 January 1879 Lieutenant General John McAllister Schofield was an US Army officer who held multiple major commands during the course… Read More

What was the Battle of Chaffin’s Farm?

Introduction The Battle of Chaffin’s Farm and New Market Heights, also known as Laurel Hill and combats at Forts Harrison, Johnson, and Gilmer, was fought in Virginia on 29 to 30 September 1864, as part of the Siege of Petersburg in the American Civil War. Background From the very beginning of the war, Confederate engineers… Read More