What was the Russian Civil War (1917-1923)?

Introduction The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России, tr. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii) was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia’s political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik… Read More


What are War Reparations?

Introduction War reparations are compensation payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors. They are intended to cover damage or injury inflicted during a war. Generally, the term war reparations refers to money or goods changing hands, but not to the annexation of land. Brief History Making the defeated party pay a… Read More

Who was Yank Levy?

Introduction Bert “Yank” Levy (05 October 1897 to 02 September 1965) was a Canadian soldier, socialist, military instructor and author/pamphleteer of one of the first manuals on guerrilla warfare, which was widely circulated with more than a half million published. He served with irregular forces in several parts of the world in the 1920s and… Read More

What is a Jam Tin Grenade?

Introduction The double cylinder, Nos.8 and No.9 hand grenades, also known as the “jam tins”, are a type of improvised explosive device (IED) used by the British and Commonwealth forces, notably the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) in World War I. Background The jam tin, or bully beef tin, was one of many… Read More

What is Trench Warfare?

Introduction Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines largely comprising military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy’s small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. Trench warfare became archetypically associated with World War I (1914 to 1918), when the Race to the Sea rapidly expanded trench… Read More

What was the Halifax Explosion (1917)?

Introduction The Halifax Explosion was a disaster that occurred in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, on the morning of 06 December 1917. SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship laden with high explosives, collided with the Norwegian vessel SS Imo in the Narrows, a strait connecting the upper Halifax Harbour to Bedford Basin. A fire on board… Read More


“To get the best out of your men, they must feel that you are their real leader and must know that they can depend upon you.” General of the Armies John J. Pershing (1860 to 1948) John J. Pershing, in full John Joseph Pershing, byname Black Jack, was a US Army General who commanded the… Read More