Who was George E. Stewart?

Introduction George Evans Stewart (02 August 1872 to 02 March 1946) was an officer in the United States Army and a Medal of Honour recipient for his actions in the Philippine-American War. Background He later commanded the 339th Infantry Regiment and the American Expeditionary Force in northern Russia (refer to Allies Intervention in the Russia… Read More

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What was the Hands Off Russia Campaign (1919)?

Introduction The Hands Off Russia campaign was an international political initiative first launched by British Socialists in 1919 to organise opposition to the British intervention on the side of the White armies against the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War (1917-1923), as well as to oppose support for Poland during the Polish-Soviet war (1918-1921). The… Read More

What was the Polish-Soviet War (1918-1921)?

Introduction The Polish-Soviet War (late autumn 1918 to 18 March 1921) was fought primarily between the Second Polish Republic and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the aftermath of World War I, on territories formerly held by the Russian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Refer to Ukranian Wars of Independence (1917-1921). In newly independent… Read More

What was the Soviet-Ukrainian War (1917-1921)?

Introduction The Soviet-Ukrainian War (Ukrainian: радянсько-українська війна, romanised: radiansko-ukrainska viina, or більшовицько-українська війна, bilshovytsko-ukrainska viina) is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine for the events taking place between 1917-1921, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Bolsheviks (Ukrainian Soviet Republic and RSFSR). The war ensued soon after the… Read More

What is War Communism?

Introduction War communism or military communism (Russian: Военный коммунизм, Voyennyy kommunizm) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921. According to Soviet historiography, the ruling Bolshevik administration adopted this policy with the goal of keeping towns (the proletarian power-base) and the Red Army… Read More

What was the October Revolution (1917)?

Introduction The October Revolution, also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution, as the official term in the Soviet Union, the Bolshevik Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the October Uprising, the October Coup or Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian… Read More

What was the 1905 Russian Revolution?

Introduction The Russian Revolution of 1905, also known as the First Russian Revolution, was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. It led to constitutional reform (namely the… Read More