What was the Red Terror (Ethiopia)?

Introduction The Red Terror (Amharic: ቀይ ሽብር, romanised: ḳäy shəbbər), also known as the Ethiopian Red Terror, was a violent political repression campaign of the Derg against other competing Marxist-Leninist groups in Ethiopia and present-day Eritrea from 1976 to 1978. The Qey Shibir was an attempt to consolidate Derg rule during the political instability after… Read More


What was the Hungarian Red Terror (1919)?

Introduction The Red Terror in Hungary (Hungarian: vörösterror) was a period of repressive violence and suppression carried out by the Hungarian Communist Party in 1919 during the four-month period of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, primarily towards anti-communist forces, and others deemed “enemies of the state”. The new government followed the Bolshevik method: the party established… Read More

What was the Red Terror (1918-1922)?

Introduction The Red Terror (Russian: красный террор, romanised: krasnyy terror) in Soviet Russia was a campaign of political repression and executions which was carried out by the Bolsheviks, chiefly through the Cheka, the Bolshevik secret police. It officially started in early September 1918 and lasted until 1922. Arising after assassination attempts on Vladimir Lenin and… Read More

What was the White Terror (1917-1923)?

Introduction The White Terror (Russian: Белый Террор, romanised: Belyy Terror) in Russia refers to the organised violence and mass killings carried out by the White Army during the Russian Civil War (1917-1923). It began after the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917, and continued until the defeat of the White Army at the hands of… Read More

Who was George E. Stewart?

Introduction George Evans Stewart (02 August 1872 to 02 March 1946) was an officer in the United States Army and a Medal of Honour recipient for his actions in the Philippine-American War. Background He later commanded the 339th Infantry Regiment and the American Expeditionary Force in northern Russia (refer to Allies Intervention in the Russia… Read More

What was the Hands Off Russia Campaign (1919)?

Introduction The Hands Off Russia campaign was an international political initiative first launched by British Socialists in 1919 to organise opposition to the British intervention on the side of the White armies against the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War (1917-1923), as well as to oppose support for Poland during the Polish-Soviet war (1918-1921). The… Read More

What was the Polish-Soviet War (1918-1921)?

Introduction The Polish-Soviet War (late autumn 1918 to 18 March 1921) was fought primarily between the Second Polish Republic and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the aftermath of World War I, on territories formerly held by the Russian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Refer to Ukranian Wars of Independence (1917-1921). In newly independent… Read More