What was the Hands Off Russia Campaign (1919)?

Introduction The Hands Off Russia campaign was an international political initiative first launched by British Socialists in 1919 to organise opposition to the British intervention on the side of the White armies against the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War (1917-1923), as well as to oppose support for Poland during the Polish-Soviet war (1918-1921). The… Read More


What was Kościuszko’s Squadron

Introduction The Kościuszko Squadron was a Polish Air Force fighter squadron established in late 1919 by Merian C. Cooper, an American aviator who would go on to direct the film King Kong in 1933. The unit was named after Tadeusz Kościuszko. Its insignia was designed by Elliot William Chess (1899-1962), an American pilot serving with… Read More

What was the Polish-Soviet War (1918-1921)?

Introduction The Polish-Soviet War (late autumn 1918 to 18 March 1921) was fought primarily between the Second Polish Republic and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the aftermath of World War I, on territories formerly held by the Russian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Refer to Ukranian Wars of Independence (1917-1921). In newly independent… Read More

What was the French Military Mission to Poland (1918-1939)?

Introduction The French Military Mission to Poland was an effort by France to aid the nascent Second Polish Republic after it achieved its independence in November, 1918, at the end of the First World War. Overview The aim was to provide aid during the Polish-Soviet War (1918-1921), and to create a strong Polish military to… Read More

What was the Soviet-Ukrainian War (1917-1921)?

Introduction The Soviet-Ukrainian War (Ukrainian: радянсько-українська війна, romanised: radiansko-ukrainska viina, or більшовицько-українська війна, bilshovytsko-ukrainska viina) is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine for the events taking place between 1917-1921, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Bolsheviks (Ukrainian Soviet Republic and RSFSR). The war ensued soon after the… Read More