What was the Ukrainian Death Triangle (1919)?

Introduction The Ukrainian Death Triangle (Ukrainian: Трикутник смерті, romanised: Trykutnyk smerti) refers to a historical situation of Ukrainian national forces in 1919, when the Ukrainian People’s Army, or UPA, found itself in the general area south of Kyiv surrounded by Bolshevik, White Guard and Polish troops. In Ukrainian, this is also sometimes referred to as… Read More

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What was the Soviet-Ukrainian War (1917-1921)?

Introduction The Soviet-Ukrainian War (Ukrainian: радянсько-українська війна, romanised: radiansko-ukrainska viina, or більшовицько-українська війна, bilshovytsko-ukrainska viina) is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine for the events taking place between 1917-1921, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People’s Republic and the Bolsheviks (Ukrainian Soviet Republic and RSFSR). The war ensued soon after the… Read More

What was the Second Winter Campaign (1921)?

Introduction The Second Winter Campaign was a failed military campaign by the Ukrainian National Army in October and November 1921 against the Bolsheviks. It was the last campaign of the Ukrainian armed forces in post-World War I attempt to achieve independence of Ukraine. Refer to Soviet-Ukrainian War (1917-1921) and First Winter Campaign (1919-1920). The Plan… Read More

What was the First Winter Campaign (1919-1920)?

Introduction The First Winter Campaign was a campaign between the army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic (UPR) and Bolshevik forces in Ukraine during the Soviet-Ukrainian War (1917-1921). Refer to Second Winter Campaign (1921). It began on 06 December 1919 and lasted until 06 May 1920. The main task of the Winter Campaign was to maintain… Read More