What is a Jam Tin Grenade?

Introduction The double cylinder, Nos.8 and No.9 hand grenades, also known as the “jam tins”, are a type of improvised explosive device (IED) used by the British and Commonwealth forces, notably the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) in World War I. Background The jam tin, or bully beef tin, was one of many… Read More

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What is Trench Warfare?

Introduction Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines largely comprising military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy’s small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. Trench warfare became archetypically associated with World War I (1914 to 1918), when the Race to the Sea rapidly expanded trench… Read More

Being Human & Understanding…

“July 24th [1916] I suddenly spied two panic‐stricken Jocks blundering back from the trenches over the open. I went out and brought them in to the C.O. I don’t suppose the case will go further, partly because the C.O. is human and understanding, and partly for the honour of the regiment. I think he let… Read More

Superb Front-line Officer…

“In one attack our company commander, Bertinck, falls. He was one of those superb front-line officers who are foremost in every hot place.” E.M. Remarque (1898 to 1970), from All Quiet on the Western Front Erich Maria Remarque, pseudonym of Erich Paul Remark, was a German novelist who is chiefly remembered as the author of… Read More

Officers: Medals & Distance…

“The number of medals on an officer’s breast varies in inverse proportion to the square of the distance of his duties from the front line.” Charles Edward Montague (1867 to 1928) He was an English novelist, journalist, and man of letters particularly noted for writings published in the Manchester Guardian and for a number of… Read More