What was the Panama Canal Zone (1903-1979)?

Introduction The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: Zona del Canal de Panamá) was an unincorporated territory of the United States from 1903 to 1979, centred on the Panama Canal and surrounded by the Republic of Panama. The zone consisted of the canal and an area generally extending five miles (8.0 km) on each side of the… Read More

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What was the Battle of Olongapo?

Introduction The Battle of Olongapo was fought 18 to 23 September 1899, during the Philippine-American War. The battle featured both land and sea fighting, of which the objective was the destruction of the single Filipino artillery gun in Olongapo, a menace to American ships crossing the nearby sea. Background During the Spanish-American War that raged… Read More

US Naval Operational Concepts: Education versus Experience

Research Paper Title Carrier Battles: Command Decision in Harm’s Way Abstract This dissertation considers the transformation of the United States Navy from a defensive-minded coastal defence navy during the first century of this nation’s history into an offensive-mindset, risk taking navy in the very early stages of World War II. More precisely, since none of the most… Read More