What was the Carnation Revolution (1974)?

Introduction The Carnation Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução dos Cravos), also known as the 25 April (Portuguese: 25 de Abril), was a military coup by left-leaning military officers that overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime on 25 April 1974 in Lisbon, producing fundamental social, economic, territorial, demographic, and political changes in Portugal and its overseas colonies through… Read More


What was the Chilean Coup D’Etat (1973)?

Introduction The 1973 Chilean coup d’état was a military coup in Chile that deposed the Popular Unity government of President Salvador Allende. On 11 September 1973, after an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled Congress and the socialist President, as well as economic war ordered by US President Richard Nixon,… Read More

What was the Rum Rebellion (1808)?

Introduction The Rum Rebellion of 1808 was a coup d’état in the then-British penal colony of New South Wales, staged by the New South Wales Corps in order to depose Governor William Bligh. Australia’s first and only military coup, it is named after the illicit rum trade of early Sydney, over which the Rum Corps,… Read More

What was the Turkish Military Memorandum (1971)?

Introduction The 1971 Turkish military memorandum (Turkish: 12 Mart Muhtırası), issued on 12 March that year, was the second military intervention to take place in the Republic of Turkey, coming 11 years after its 1960 predecessor. It is known as the “coup by memorandum”, which the military delivered in lieu of sending out tanks, as… Read More

Jellyfish & Military Coups!

Did you know that in 1999, the citizens of the island of Luzon (in the Philippines) believed a long-feared coup was underway when the power went out (Stelling, 2016). The real cause of the power going out wasn’t a military coup, it was jellyfish. A jellyfish bloom had been sucked into water intakes, taking out… Read More