What was the 14 July Revolution (1958)?

Introduction The 14 July Revolution, also known as the 1958 Iraqi coup d’état, took place on 14 July 1958 in Iraq, and resulted in the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq that had been established by King Faisal I in 1921 under the auspices of the British. King Faisal II, Prince ‘Abd al-Ilah, and… Read More

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What was the Coup of 1809?

Introduction The Coup of 1809 (Swedish: Statskuppen 1809) also referred to as the Revolution of 1809 (Swedish: Revolutionen 1809) was a Swedish coup d’état by a group of noblemen resulting in the deposition of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and the introduction of the Instrument of Government (1809). The coup was provoked by the… Read More

What was the Turkish Military Memorandum (1971)?

Introduction The 1971 Turkish military memorandum (Turkish: 12 Mart Muhtırası), issued on 12 March that year, was the second military intervention to take place in the Republic of Turkey, coming 11 years after its 1960 predecessor. It is known as the “coup by memorandum”, which the military delivered in lieu of sending out tanks, as… Read More

What was Pride’s Purge (1648)?

Introduction Pride’s Purge is the name commonly used for an event that took place on 06 December 1648, when soldiers prevented MPs considered hostile to the New Model Army from entering the House of Commons. Despite defeat in the First English Civil War, Charles I retained significant political power. This allowed him to create an… Read More

What was the Salvadoran Civil War (1979-1992)?

Introduction The Salvadoran Civil War was a civil war in El Salvador fought between the military-led junta government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) (a coalition or “umbrella organisation” of left-wing groups) from 15 October 1979 to 16 January 1992. A coup on 15 October 1979, was followed by killings… Read More