What is the Guns versus Butter Model?

Introduction In macroeconomics, the guns versus butter model is an example of a simple production-possibility frontier. It demonstrates the relationship between a nation’s investment in defence and civilian goods. The “guns or butter” model is used generally as a simplification of national spending as a part of GDP. This may be seen as an analogy… Read More


What is War Effort?

Introduction In politics and military planning, a war effort is a coordinated mobilisation of society’s resources – both industrial and human – towards the support of a military force. Depending on the militarisation of the culture, the relative size of the armed forces and the society supporting them, the style of government, and the famous… Read More

What is a War Economy?

Introduction A war economy or wartime economy is the set of contingencies undertaken by a modern state to mobilise its economy for war production. Refer to War Effort. Philippe Le Billon describes a war economy as a “system of producing, mobilising and allocating resources to sustain the violence.” Some measures taken include the increasing of… Read More

What is a Fiscal-Military State?

Introduction A fiscal-military state is a state that bases its economic model on the sustainment of its armed forces, usually in times of prolonged or severe conflict. Characteristically, fiscal-military states will subject citizens to high taxation for this purpose. Background In the past, states such as Spain, the Netherlands and Sweden, which were embroiled in… Read More