What was the Tawwabin Uprising (680-685)?

Introduction Tawwabin uprising (Arabic: ثَوْرَة ٱلتَّوَّابِين‎, Thawrah at-Tawwābīn) or the penitents uprising refers to the uprising of a group of Kufan Shia after the Battle of Karbala to take revenge for murder of Husayn ibn Ali, whom they had invited to Kufa in 680 CE (60 AH). The group was led by Sulayman ibn Surad… Read More


What was the Second Fitna (680-692)?

Introduction The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Mu’awiya I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty,… Read More