What was the Tawwabin Uprising (680-685)?

Introduction Tawwabin uprising (Arabic: ثَوْرَة ٱلتَّوَّابِين‎, Thawrah at-Tawwābīn) or the penitents uprising refers to the uprising of a group of Kufan Shia after the Battle of Karbala to take revenge for murder of Husayn ibn Ali, whom they had invited to Kufa in 680 CE (60 AH). The group was led by Sulayman ibn Surad… Read More


What was the Battle of Ayn al-Warda (685)?

Introduction The Battle of Ayn al-Warda (Arabic: مَعْرَكَة‌ عَيْن ٱلْوَرْدَة‎), part of the Second Fitna, was fought in early January 685 between the Umayyad army and the Penitents (Tawwabun). The Penitents were a group of pro-Alid Kufans led by Sulayman ibn Surad, a companion of Muhammad, who wished to atone for their failure to assist… Read More

What was the Second Fitna (680-692)?

Introduction The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Mu’awiya I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty,… Read More