Introduction The Battle of Marj Rahit (Arabic: معركة/يوم مرج راهط, Yawm Marj Rāhiṭ) was one of the early battles of the Second Fitna. It was fought on 18 August 684 between the Kalb-dominated armies of the Yaman, supporting the Umayyads under Caliph Marwan I, and the Qays under al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri, who supported the… Read More
What was the Battle of al-Harra (683)?
Introduction The Battle of al-Harra (Arabic: يوم الحرة, romanized: Yawm al-Ḥarra lit. ‘the day of al-Harra’) was fought between the Syrian army of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I (r. 680-683) led by Muslim ibn Uqba and the local defenders of Medina, namely the Ansar and Muhajirun factions, who had rebelled against the caliph. The battle,… Read More
What was the Siege of Mecca (683)?
Introduction The Siege of Mecca in September-November 683 was one of the early battles of the Second Fitna. The city of Mecca served as a sanctuary for Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, who was among the most prominent challengers to the dynastic succession to the Caliphate by the Umayyad Yazid I. After nearby Medina, the other… Read More
What was the Second Fitna (680-692)?
Introduction The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and conflicts in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad caliphate. It followed the death of the first Umayyad caliph Mu’awiya I in 680 and lasted for about twelve years. The war involved the suppression of two challenges to the Umayyad dynasty,… Read More
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